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Counting defiers

Authors: Amanda Kowalski
Date: 20 March 2019
Type: cemmap Working Paper, CWP12/19
DOI: 10.1920/wp.cem.2019.1219


The LATE monotonicity assumption of Imbens and Angrist (1994) precludes "defi ers," individuals whose treatment always runs counter to the instrument, in the terminology of Balke and Pearl (1993) and Angrist et al. (1996). I allow for defi ers in a model with a binary instrument and a binary treatment. The model is explicit about the randomization process that gives rise to the instrument. I use the model to develop estimators of the counts of de fiers, always takers, compliers, and never takers. I propose separate versions of the estimators for contexts in which the parameter of the randomization process is unspecifi ed, which I intend for use with natural experiments with virtual random assignment. I present an empirical application that revisits Angrist and Evans (1998), which examines the impact of virtual random assignment of the sex of the first two children on subsequent fertility. I fi nd that subsequent fertility is much more responsive to the sex mix of the first two children when defi ers are allowed.

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